Are PHP Variables passed by value or by reference?


It’s by value according to the PHP Documentation.

By default, function arguments are passed by value (so that if the value of the argument within the function is changed, it does not get changed outside of the function). To allow a function to modify its arguments, they must be passed by reference.

To have an argument to a function always passed by reference, prepend an ampersand (&) to the argument name in the function definition.

function changeValue(&$var)


echo $result; // $result is 6 here

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Nested namespaces in PHP

namespacesIt’s true that “Namespace declarations cannot be nested”.Namespacing is used to avoid conflicting definitions and introduce more flexibility and organization in your code.The brackets surrounding the namespace code block are completely optional.If we want to translate namespace code to run able in php. We can write like:

namespace Foo\Bar;

class X{
    // Your properties
class Y {
// Your properties

If  need more information you can see this link well written by Elias Zerrouq with example–net-27203

Common routine for web designer


The common routine requires the following main steps:

  • Step 1: understand the theme and the topics of the website and decode the client’s requests
  • Step 2: choose the right style and sketch your ideas
  • Step 3: draw a clean and clear wireframe to summarize the structure of the website
  • Step 4: design the website (in pixels) through an image editor, like Photoshop, to create a real-scale mockup
  • Step 5: convert your psd mockup to HTML and CSS

Five macro-steps to build an effective website using brain, pencil, paper, Photoshop, HTML and CSS. But technology doesn’t stop, luckily, and we have other two great allies for the future to design better website: HTML5 and CSS3.